Cardiogenic shock | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Cardiogenic shock | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

– [Voiceover] The heart
is a very beautiful organ and here I have drawn a
cross section of the heart where you can see the various
different compartments, you’ve got the right
atrium, the right ventricle and the left atrium
and the left ventricle. And the right side of the heart of course pumps blood to the lungs which would be on either side of the heart and this blood returns back to the left side of the
heart through the left atrium and then blood is pumped
again from the left ventricle out into the system all
the way down to the legs and then up to the brain
as well as the arms through the aorta. And of course, this entire process is essential for life, for delivering oxygen to the tissues, delivering nutrients, all of that. And so you would imagine, failure of the heart pump results in less output,
less cardiac output which means less tissue perfusion. A patient would no longer be able to distribute all that oxygen. But what could cause failure? Well failure of the heart can
result from valvular problems. So, for example if the
aortic outflow tract which is right here is perhaps damaged or
narrowed in some way, it’s going to make it
extremely hard for blood to be pushed out through the aorta and out to the system. So valvular problems can be a cause of failure that leads
to shock, arrhythmias. Which means there’s an issue with the electric
conduction through the heart which allows it to function
and pump our entire lines. There could potentially be
stiffness of the ventricular wall or the wall of the heart which prevents it from being
able to contract properly, and if the pump itself
is so severely disabled this can lead to shock, lowering of the blood pressure and decreased ability to deliver the necessary
oxygen to the tissues. And I want to highlight that heart attacks are the major cause of cardiogenic shock. So, MIs, myocardial infarctions cause decreased contractility. So, what you’ll see is for example if we look
at the left ventricle, if blood can’t be pumped
forward it will back up and it will back up into the left atrium. And when the heart can
no longer accommodate all these fluid overload, it’s going to backup
into the lungs as well, each side of the lungs. And as things gets worse and worse, it will back up into the veins and all the way into the
right side of the heart and it can be backed up all the way into the system as well. So this is really known as fluid overload and there are just a couple of symptoms that I’m going to point out. So for example, pulmonary congestion. Pulmonary congestion. Like I said, blood is
backing up into the lungs and so that may make it
difficult for patients to breathe and they may have a
cough that’s productive with a lot of fluid and that’s really the blood
backing up into the lungs. You may see something called increased jugular venous
distention, that’s JVD and jugular venous distention is basically the jugular vein gets distended because as you see here
this blood backs up into the venous system and it can back up all
the way into the neck. And of course, you might see chest pain, also known as angina. As the heart is starved for oxygen and then of course you may see the different symptoms that
you would see in other shocks such as organ failure, organ dysfunction, decreased urine output and all of these is caused
by decreased oxygenation of those different organs and tissues. And you will likely also see cool skin as blood is being diverted
away from the skin and to more vital organ such as the brain or the heart and the lungs. So with these symptoms and
these causes of heart failure, how can we diagnose
cardiogenic shock in a patient? Let’s take a look over here so we can take a look at the diagnosis of cardiogenic shock. And so diagnosis will
include of course your typical labs such as serum lactate or ABG, assessing the oxygenation and the failure of tissues
to utilize oxygenation for their biochemical needs. But also you’re going to want to look at different things that might be causing heart failure. So for example, you might
want to look at troponins which will show if
there’s any tissue damage or damage to the heart like in the case of a severe heart attack. Or maybe you can look at a chest x-ray. So here is a normal chest x-ray with the clear lung fields. You can see this diaphragmatic recess so there’s no fluid accumulation here and here is a congested heart and lungs. You can see this kind of
fluffy fluid accumulation where the pulmonary veins are. So, over here on our little heart picture the pulmonary veins are really congested because of the backup of fluid from the left side of the heart. And you can also see this sort of blunting of the diaphragmatic recess. Here it’s still a little bit sharp but on this side you can
see it’s starting to blunt, get blunted a little bit. So you can kind of make out
the outline of the diaphragm and where it meets the chest wall but it’s somewhat obscured as compared to the normal view. And let me actually go
ahead and erase that so you can see it again. You can see how it’s
still kind of obscured versus over here. Or maybe you might want to look at an EKG for different signs of arrhythmias or a heart attack or something like that. Or take it one step further
and get and ultrasound it, echocardiogram to take
a view of the heart. This heart ultrasound
will allow you to see the contractility of the heart, how well it’s squeezing blood. And so I highlight all of
these really just to say that you want to look and see what’s going on with the heart. What is the problem that’s causing this cardiogenic shock or heart failure so that you can potentially correct it. But aside from these lab values, two ones that are particularly important in cardiogenic shock
are evaluating the PCWP which is pulmonary
capillary wedge pressure and the cardiac output. So here we are, let’s zoom back down and take it over here. And look down here so we have a little bit
more room to play around. And again, I’m gonna
raise it a little bit. So first let’s go ahead and tackle the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Now the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure is determined by inserting a catheter to go through the venous system into the right side of the heart and up into the pulmonary arteries to essentially the capillaries. And that’s why it’s called the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. You wedge this pulmonary catheter all the way into the
pulmonary capillaries. And the reason you do this is to assess back pressure from the heart. Remember in cardiogenic shock fluid from the left ventricle builds up and backs up into the lungs and into the pulmonary arteries. And so this backup of fluid
actually creates a pressure whereas the pressure is normally less than 15 millimeters of mercury in the pulmonary arteries near
the pulmonary capillaries. The pressure in cardiogenic shock will be above 18 millimeters of mercury. So this will be a way you can
diagnose cardiogenic shock when you’re trying to figure out what type of shock this may be. And the second thing that you can take a look at with the
heart is cardiac output. Now, I had mentioned cardiac
output or cardiac index and cardiac index might be a word that you haven’t heard before, don’t really understand what it is. Well, cardiac index is
essentially the cardiac output over a patient’s body surface area. And cardiac index is really used to standardize cardiac output. The idea here is that patients come in many different shapes and sizes. They can be very tall like NBA players such as Michael Jordan and Kobe Bryant or normal sized, a little bit smaller
than a basketball star or even shorter like children for example. So, with different heights
and weights of patients, cardiac output varies and that’s why you can
use body surface area to really create a standard value that can be used in
place of cardiac output. And cardiac index in patients
with cardiogenic shock will be less than 2.2 liters per minute. So that’s cardiac output
over meter squared and that comes from body surface area. And the normal of cardiac index should usually be between 2.6 and 4.2. Now there are actually many different ways to measure cardiac output including pulmonary artery catheter. You can also use an echocardiogram to look at the heart but it’s important just
for you to know that cardiac output is an important measure to obtain in a patient
who has cardiogenic shock. Now for the treatment of cardiogenic shock I like to break it down
into three different things. First of all, remember in shock, patients are lacking oxygen delivery. So providing a patient with oxygen will provide added support so that their cells can
receive the oxygen they need. And number two, you need to provide cardiovascular support. So the cardiovascular system is in trouble and needs a little bit of help. So there’s two ways to
think about doing this. First, you could increase the
systemic vascular resistance. So that means blood vessels will be able to carry blood
forward a little bit better if the resistance is increased. And this can be done with
different medications called vasopressors, norepinephrine, epinephrine. They’re all examples of vasopressors. They allow blood vessels to squeeze down to improve blood flow. And another way to improve
cardiovascular support is through increased heart contractility. If the heart can contract better then it can squeeze out the blood. In fact, that’s the problem
with cardiogenic shock. Blood is not getting
pushed out of the heart. So improving contractility and there’s different
medications for this as well, but improving contractiility is another thing that can be done to treat cardiogenic shock. And finally, the last and probably most important thing to do is to repair the heart or whatever problem is
causing the cardiogenic shock. So for example, in a patient who has occluded blood vessels in the heart, there’s a procedure to restore blood flow by opening up those vessels and allowing oxygen
delivery back to the heart. Or maybe as i said before,
a valve is the problem so repairing or replacing that valve may be what helps solve the heart failure. And in some very severe cases, replacing the heart entirely, performing a heart transplant may be the only way to treat
this cardiogenic shock. So remember, in cardiogenic shock, the issue is the heart
itself is not pumping and does not squeeze enough to allow blood flow to go forward and this results in poor oxygen delivery to the rest of the body.

21 thoughts on “Cardiogenic shock | Circulatory System and Disease | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy”

  1. Is this right? I don't think so. In cardiogenic shock, you would want to avoid vasopressors and reduce Svr. Off load the heart. Increasing Svr would increase the work of the heart. You wanna decrease preload and after load.

  2. Vasopressors vasoconstrict…that decreases amount of blood in systemic circulation. Increased SVR is a compensatory mechanism so blood shunts to the vital organs, so probably not best to further increase resistance as a part of treating decreased systemic circulation.

  3. First, be careful not to conflate pulmonary venous congestion (high PCWP) with cardiogenic shock (insufficient CO and MAP to adequately perfuse organs); although they frequently coexist, they don't always.  Also, in cardiogenic shock, SVR is usually already quite elevated as part of the body's attempt to restore normal blood pressure in the face of the failing heart.  As pointed out by other viewers, vasopressors (at least pure vasopressors) are a bad idea since they will increase the work of the heart further, leading to worsening of cardiac output and worsening of symptoms/signs of congestion.  Instead, the foundations of treatment of cardiogenic shock are inotropes (which increase contractility), vasodilators (which LOWER SVR), and usually diuretics depending on volume status (which lower preload).  Although fixing the underlying problem may sound like a great idea, performing a valve replacement on someone actively in cardiogenic shock carries a substantial risk of death.

  4. Um…yes on the Inotropes. NO on pushing pressors. Don't give a heart more work when it is already failing. CO is already often compromised due to PVR as one element of the problem.

  5. OK. I am a little concern with people here saying not to use pressors….UMMM?  Now it is a good idea to go back to the guidelines and then come back and comment.

  6. At 9:22, it says that vasopressor is used to increase O2 supply…..How is it possible to increase perfusion by constricting a blood vessel?…..What I know is constricting a blood vessel produces ischemia as constricted vessel carries lesser blood and thus carries lesser O2 than a dilated one……Also, by constricting a vessel we are increasing SVR which means there will be an increase in afterload as heart is going to have hard time to pump against increased peripheral resistance…….This doesn't seem to be of any help to a heart which has already failed in pumping blood…….So, what is the point of giving a vasopressor in cardiogenic shock?……..A selective veno-constrictor would make sense though…..PLEASE HELP!

  7. "Inotropic and/or vasopressor drug therapy may be necessary in patients with inadequate tissue perfusion and adequate intravascular volume, so as to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 60 or 65 mm Hg." (

  8. what is the prognosis for a patient 77 years old with heart failure and e.f. 30% in case of cardiogenic shock? thank you.

  9. Each within this entire series is excellent info and I hope all listen and learn from the sequence.  Blessings thank you.

  10. hi i have kind of suggesting or a request could you please put a translation to french language (by writing ) is it possible!?

  11. Just commenting on the first few seconds, "The heart is a very beautiful organ". It made me spit out some of the water I was drinking d/t laughing because it sounded like a very nerdy way of describing a Victoria's Secret model. Nope, just internal body organs lol. I'm sure the video will be excellent and very helpful, though 🙂

  12. As a nurse, it would be more beneficial if you list common drugs used as opposed to calculations and formulas that aren't commonly used. Just saying. NCLEX wouldn't really ask that…regardless, the info here is very questionable. I'll stick to my book on this one and highly suggest revision as other people have commented.

  13. your pronunciation of angina was classic haha, I've only ever heard it as "Anne-j-eye-na" never heard "Anne-gin-a" as in a bottle of Gin before.

  14. Also at 4:42 in the video you highlight the "pulmonary veins" in your heart diagram with yellow lines, you've actually drawn the lines around the pulmonary arteries, not the veins (which carry blood back to the heart)

  15. Reading the comments about controversy of giving pressors….from my own nursing lecture at school, you would give vasopressors although it seems like a contraindication because you'd be giving fluids if the patient is experiencing cardiogenic shock. If the vessels are super dilated, the fluids don't stay in, hence the vasopressors to constrict and try to keep fluids in.

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